A tear in the lining of the wall of the anus.
An abnormal passage between the anal canal and outer skin around the anus.
Is the medical name for painkillers. An analgesic is any group of medicines used to relieve pain.
The anal canal ends at the anus (which opens the colon to the outside of the body). Closure is controlled by sphincter muscles. Faeces are expelled from the body through the anus.
The principal indication for APER is a rectal carcinoma situated in the lower third of the rectum. Other indications include recurrent or residual anal carcinoma following initial, usually definitive combination chemo-radiotherapy. APERs involves removal of the anus, the rectum and part of the sigmoid colon along with the associated (regional) lymph nodes, through incisions made in the abdomen and perineum. The end of the remaining sigmoid colon is brought out permanently as an opening, called a colostomy, on the surface of the abdomen. The result is a scar in the area where the anus used to be and once this has healed there is no external opening.
Connects to the end of the small intestine and goes up (or ascends) the right side of the lower abdomen.
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